What is Obesity (overweight)? Why Should It Be Treated?
Obesity; It is an increasing health problem all over the world and in our country. Obesity, which is defined by the World Health Organization as “the accumulation of fat in the body at a level that will adversely affect the health”, is the disruption of the body’s energy balance and the increase in body weight to the extent that it disrupts health due to the energy consumed being more than the energy consumed. Obesity is considered to be more than 30% of body fat in adult women and more than 25% in adult men. Obesity is beyond being a problem in itself; It is a disease that must be treated because it is an important risk factor that causes heart and blood pressure diseases, diabetes, kidney diseases, respiratory system diseases, joint diseases and sudden paralysis. Obesity is a chronic disease that negatively affects a person’s quality of life and increases the risk of death.
Obesity Of Incidence
According to the data of the World Health Organization, approximately 2.3 billion people are overweight and 700 million people are obese in the world. According to the same data, overweight and obesity are responsible for 80% of diabetes (diabetes), 35% of heart diseases and 55% of hypertension (high blood pressure) in adults in Europe and cause more than 1 million deaths every year. Today, it is known that at least 150 million adults in Europe are obese.
According to the Turkey Statistical Institute data, the rate of obesity in our country in 2014, while 15.2% in 2008 and reached 19.9%. The increase in obesity rate in 6 years was 32.3% in women and 24% in men. According to the data of the Ministry of Health, one out of every 3 women and every 5 men in our country has an obesity disease that must be treated. Unfortunately, obesity rates rank in Turkey, after the US and Iceland ranks 3rd in the world.
Obesity is a disease that affects many organs in the body. Therefore, its treatment should be planned and performed with a “multidisciplinary” approach, that is, multiple branches work together in harmony.
The following methods are used in the treatment of obesity disease:
- Medical nutrition (diet) therapy,
- Endoscopic treatments,
- Stomach balloon
- Laparoscopic obesity surgery (closed obesity surgery)
Who Is Obesity Surgery Applied?
Closed obesity surgeries are an effective treatment method that has been widely used in the world and in our country in recent years. According to international criteria, body mass index (BMI) * is above 32.35, and in addition, a serious disease (diabetes (diabetes), hypertension (high blood pressure), cardiovascular disease, sleep apnea (sleep breathing), joint diseases. ] or obesity surgery is recommended for all patients with a BMI above 40.
What is Obesity Surgery?
Obesity surgeries are an effective obesity treatment that has been widely used in the world and in our country in recent years. These surgeries not only provide slimming and an aesthetic appearance, but also improve health and live a longer life. One of the most important goals in obesity surgeries is to reduce the amount of nutrients, and therefore energy, to “volume restriction”. The commonly used volume restriction surgery is “sleeve gastrectomy”. Another purpose of obesity surgeries is to reduce the absorption of nutrients. There are also obesity surgeries that aim to make hormonal changes in the gastro-intestinal system as well as volume-restricting and absorption-disrupting effects. An example of these surgeries can be diabetes (diabetes) surgeries.
Stomach Reduction Surgery
Gastric sleeve surgery is a surgical method with very low complications (unwanted developments after surgery) and side effects. In this surgery, which is known as sleeve gastrectomy or stomach reduction surgery, the large edge of the stomach is cut and removed, a tube-shaped stomach with a volume of 60 – 120 ml (about 1 tea glass) is created. In this surgery, which lasts for an average of 1.5 hours, since the large side of the stomach secreting hunger hormone is removed and the stomach volume is reduced, appetite decreases, more easily satiated and weight is lost.
All Stomach Surgery Advantages
- Approximately 40% of their weight is permanently lost within a year
- Significant improvements are also observed in other obesity-related diseases.
- Although the stomach volume is reduced, stomach functions are not impaired. Anything can be eaten, but is satiated with small portions.
- The region of the stomach that secretes hunger hormone is removed. Lowering the hunger hormone is an important factor in the long-lasting feeling of fullness and in maintaining weight loss.
- It does not cause nausea, vomiting, palpitations and fainting as the muscle at the stomach outlet is protected and works actively.
- Ulcer formation is almost never seen.
- Since it does not interfere with the small intestines, it does not cause malabsorption. Intestinal obstruction, intestinal wounds, anemia, vitamin and mineral deficiency, osteoporosis (osteoporosis), malnutrition and diarrhea are not observed after sleeve gastrectomy. Gastric sleeve surgery is the first choice for people who are afraid of the obligations of surgeries that cause malabsorption by removing some of the small intestines. It does not require lifelong or long-term medication use.
- It is the first treatment option for people who are overweight (BMI> 50 kg / m2).
- t is the surgery that has become highly preferred as the main treatment option for people below the limit of obesity (BMI 30-50 kg / m2).
- It is the first choice in cases of excessive liver fat.
- With its fast and easy application laparoscopically, it provides the advantage of short operation time and rapid recovery in people who have severe heart and lung problems due to excessive obesity.